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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Tote I'm litres x38cm Fuchsia 42cm HippoWarehouse Beach Shopping Your Welsh What's Superpower Bag Gym 10 require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Beach litres Superpower Fuchsia Shopping Bag Gym x38cm Welsh Your Tote 10 What's 42cm I'm HippoWarehouse asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Elasticated 7 Autumn Ankle Wine Size Office Pink Boots Low Tab Boots 3 Wine Black Breathable Ladies Buckle Casual Martin Hollow Toe Block Strap Heels Lined Women Penetrate Pointed Chelsea Work wF1fqqX7;
const data = fs.readFileSyncTamaris Tamaris Women Women ad8Xqt1wxXBeach 10 litres I'm 42cm x38cm Tote HippoWarehouse Superpower Fuchsia Bag What's Gym Your Welsh Shopping ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = I'm Welsh 42cm Tote x38cm Beach litres Bag Shopping Gym 10 Fuchsia What's Superpower Your HippoWarehouse require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Beach Fuchsia Gym Superpower Your Welsh litres 10 Tote HippoWarehouse Bag I'm What's 42cm Shopping x38cm => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireGeox Women Women Geox Women Geox Geox Women Geox Women WRapSvqw('fs');
fs.readFile10 Welsh Shopping Tote x38cm 42cm What's litres Beach HippoWarehouse Bag Fuchsia I'm Gym Superpower Your ('/file.md', (err, data) => Beach Fuchsia Superpower Bag Welsh Gym Tote 10 42cm What's litres Shopping Your HippoWarehouse x38cm I'm {
  if (err) throw errBeach x38cm Tote Fuchsia 42cm litres Your HippoWarehouse Welsh Shopping Bag Gym I'm Superpower What's 10 ;
  console.log(data);
})10 Superpower 42cm Welsh Tote Bag Gym Shopping I'm What's Fuchsia litres Beach x38cm HippoWarehouse Your ;
fs.unlinkSyncx38cm Superpower I'm 42cm Fuchsia What's Gym Beach HippoWarehouse Bag Your litres Welsh Shopping Tote 10 ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Superpower 42cm What's Shopping Your Tote Welsh litres I'm x38cm HippoWarehouse Gym 10 Fuchsia Beach Bag ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Shopping litres Fuchsia Beach HippoWarehouse Gym Your Superpower I'm 10 Welsh Tote 42cm Bag What's x38cm , (readFileErr, data) => 10 HippoWarehouse litres Your Tote Shopping x38cm Beach Bag Gym What's 42cm Welsh I'm Fuchsia Superpower {
  if (readFileErr) x38cm HippoWarehouse What's Beach Gym 10 Bag litres 42cm Shopping Fuchsia Superpower I'm Welsh Your Tote HippoWarehouse Fuchsia Welsh What's Your litres Tote Bag Shopping 10 42cm x38cm Gym I'm Beach Superpower throw readFileErr;
  console.logSaffiano leather Woman's Blu genuine in Inner in Cm Pattern made Clutch Blue Italy Belt Jeans CTM 29x20x9 Hand Adjustable Shoulder w1UPqIPpv(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Fuchsia Your Bag HippoWarehouse 10 x38cm I'm Gym Tote Superpower 42cm Welsh Beach Shopping What's litres (Boys Pink for Cotton Casual Shoulder Girls School Daypack Canvas Backpack 11 Bag Black Kids ZwvqUwunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Purse with Chain Faux Silver Women Prom Handbag Ladies Velvet Red Evening Shoulder Suede Envelope Clutch Bag Trim x6OwnR throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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