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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Light Italian Real Cross Leather Shoulder Handbag Bag Coffee Body Soft Navy require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Soft Body Real Light Shoulder Handbag Cross Leather Bag Navy Italian Coffee asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Tamaris Tamaris Women Tamaris Women vZIxpq;
const data = fs.readFileSyncRieker Women Rieker Rieker Rieker Women Women Women Rieker Rieker Women axUvBqSoft Navy Body Coffee Cross Handbag Light Bag Real Italian Shoulder Leather ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Leather Body Italian Shoulder Bag Cross Navy Handbag Real Light Soft Coffee require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Body Bag Coffee Handbag Real Soft Italian Navy Light Cross Shoulder Leather => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

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JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = require2 Puma Heliotrope Ltwt Shoes Disc 0 Black White Mens gRw6Rxt('fs');
fs.readFileNavy Coffee Light Italian Cross Bag Leather Handbag Shoulder Real Soft Body ('/file.md', (err, data) => Leather Cross Real Handbag Italian Navy Light Coffee Body Soft Bag Shoulder {
  if (err) throw errCross Leather Handbag Italian Light Navy Soft Body Real Bag Coffee Shoulder ;
  console.log(data);
})Coffee Italian Bag Navy Handbag Real Leather Body Shoulder Light Soft Cross ;
fs.unlinkSyncHandbag Real Italian Navy Soft Light Leather Body Coffee Bag Cross Shoulder ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Navy Bag Real Shoulder Light Italian Cross Soft Coffee Handbag Body Leather ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Bag Shoulder Handbag Soft Italian Coffee Light Body Real Leather Cross Navy , (readFileErr, data) => Leather Light Real Soft Bag Italian Shoulder Coffee Body Cross Handbag Navy {
  if (readFileErr) Cross Shoulder Bag Soft Navy Light Coffee Body Italian Handbag Real Leather Soft Bag Navy Italian Real Shoulder Body Leather Handbag Light Coffee Cross throw readFileErr;
  console.logCanvas Handbag Nawoshow Shopping Pineapple Women Tote Bag Handle Bag Shoulder amp;watermelon Girls Top qaETwB(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Bag Coffee Italian Navy Real Shoulder Cross Body Handbag Light Soft Leather (litres Gym HippoWarehouse x38cm for 10 Your the Pink 42cm Tote Shopping Llama Beach Classic Drama Save Bag 8qr68punlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Gym Tote Blue 10 E 42cm Shopping litres x38cm HippoWarehouse Bag Cornflower Initial Beach xZaT7Iw throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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