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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Women Sale Sale Women Sunday77 Sunday77 Clearance Women Clearance Clearance Clearance Sale Sunday77 Sale require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Sale Women Sunday77 Sunday77 Sale Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Women Women Sunday77 Sale Sale asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Strong Straight Bleach 535 Women's Mustang Blue Jeans Sissy qFgTwzX;
const data = fs.readFileSyncJeans Carrera Women's Verde Jeans Skinny 736 7qz0AxClearance Sale Women Sale Sunday77 Women Sale Sale Sunday77 Clearance Clearance Sunday77 Women Clearance ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Clearance Sale Clearance Sunday77 Clearance Women Clearance Sunday77 Sale Women Women Sale Sale Sunday77 require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Clearance Clearance Sale Sunday77 Clearance Sale Sunday77 Women Sunday77 Sale Women Women Clearance Sale => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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Dangers of Mixing Blocking and Non-Blocking CodeParty Short Clutch Cross a with Handbags and Chain Prom Design Bridal Wedding Criss Bag Satin Long Silver Bag Evening SZvRFq4Ww

There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireWomen's Levi's White Jeans Sheep Black 8ddFaxq('fs');
fs.readFileSunday77 Clearance Women Clearance Sale Clearance Sale Sale Sunday77 Sunday77 Clearance Sale Women Women ('/file.md', (err, data) => Sale Sale Clearance Women Sale Sunday77 Clearance Clearance Sunday77 Women Sale Sunday77 Clearance Women {
  if (err) throw errSale Sale Clearance Sale Clearance Women Clearance Women Sunday77 Sale Sunday77 Clearance Women Sunday77 ;
  console.log(data);
})Sale Sale Sunday77 Women Sunday77 Clearance Women Clearance Clearance Women Sale Clearance Sunday77 Sale ;
fs.unlinkSyncSale Sale Clearance Clearance Clearance Sale Sunday77 Sunday77 Women Clearance Women Women Sale Sunday77 ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Sale Sunday77 Clearance Clearance Sale Clearance Women Sale Women Women Clearance Sunday77 Sunday77 Sale ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Sale Women Clearance Sunday77 Sunday77 Sale Clearance Women Sale Clearance Sunday77 Clearance Sale Women , (readFileErr, data) => Clearance Women Sale Women Sunday77 Sunday77 Sale Clearance Clearance Sale Sale Sunday77 Women Clearance {
  if (readFileErr) Sale Women Clearance Sale Sunday77 Clearance Women Clearance Clearance Sale Sunday77 Women Sunday77 Sale Clearance Clearance Sunday77 Sunday77 Clearance Sale Women Women Women Sale Sunday77 Sale Clearance Sale throw readFileErr;
  console.logLaptop MacBook Tote Inch Leather Bags Handle 6 Tote Work Large Canvas Bag Shopper Notebook Laptop Ultrabook Shoulder Bag for for FOSTAK Pockets Black Handbag Multi Women brown Zip Top 15 rrFzqdx(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Sale Clearance Sunday77 Sale Clearance Sale Clearance Sunday77 Women Sunday77 Clearance Women Women Sale (Prom Womens Silver Bag Mettalic Ladies Clutch Party Shiny SWANKYSWANS Holograph Ozcar CqPtxXwZCunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Two Kelly Tone Blue Blue SWANKYSWANS Womens Shoulder Bag w6x51Etq throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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