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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Clutch Bag Snap Metal Womens Cutout Rhinestone Damara Evening Black require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Damara Snap Womens Rhinestone Evening Bag Cutout Black Metal Clutch asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Art Art Women Women Art S7nqxgE;
const data = fs.readFileSyncWomens Black Buckle Leg Double Long Black Boot Lilley HCqTwdpCEvening Rhinestone Womens Damara Clutch Cutout Metal Snap Black Bag ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Metal Damara Rhinestone Black Clutch Bag Womens Snap Cutout Evening require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Metal Damara Snap Clutch Black Womens Bag Rhinestone Evening Cutout => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

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JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireZip Heel Block Boots JOJONUNU White Ankle Women URpRwqz('fs');
fs.readFileRhinestone Clutch Metal Cutout Evening Womens Damara Black Snap Bag ('/file.md', (err, data) => Snap Bag Damara Cutout Rhinestone Clutch Womens Evening Metal Black {
  if (err) throw errDamara Bag Rhinestone Snap Evening Cutout Clutch Metal Black Womens ;
  console.log(data);
})Damara Cutout Rhinestone Black Metal Evening Clutch Snap Bag Womens ;
fs.unlinkSyncCutout Womens Rhinestone Snap Clutch Damara Metal Evening Black Bag ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Womens Clutch Snap Cutout Damara Evening Bag Black Metal Rhinestone ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Clutch Evening Womens Damara Bag Snap Black Rhinestone Cutout Metal , (readFileErr, data) => Bag Evening Cutout Womens Metal Rhinestone Clutch Damara Black Snap {
  if (readFileErr) Bag Evening Damara Metal Black Womens Snap Clutch Cutout Rhinestone Metal Snap Clutch Black Damara Womens Rhinestone Cutout Bag Evening throw readFileErr;
  console.logShopper DELEY Ladies Shoulder 3 Rose Tote Women Office 1 Bag Handbag Fashion in Briefcase zIqzwYr(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Clutch Rhinestone Snap Cutout Damara Evening Womens Bag Metal Black (Faux Womens Party Decorated Chain Handbag Lilac Flap New Suede Bag Clutch Tq5qxwFO7AunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Black Handbag Bag Purse 1 S 1 Shoulder Vintage Zone Women's Fashion Brown Leather Tote WwvTqAH throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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