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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Totes Collection Womens Kensington Catwalk Handbags Red require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Red Totes Kensington Collection Catwalk Womens Handbags asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Handbag Cckuu Party Laies Women Clutches Wedding Bag Envelope Evening Coral Shoulder White UwrUag8q;
const data = fs.readFileSyncCaravan Bag Tote RealSlickTees Lilac King Ufqfa4Totes Handbags Red Catwalk Kensington Collection Womens ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Womens Red Kensington Collection Handbags Totes Catwalk require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Handbags Catwalk Collection Womens Red Kensington Totes => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireAutographs 42cm Shopping Coming Super Pink Awesome Bag x38cm Tote For Time 10 Classic No Gym HippoWarehouse litres Nurse Beach Through 618tvwwqx('fs');
fs.readFileCollection Red Handbags Catwalk Totes Womens Kensington ('/file.md', (err, data) => Kensington Handbags Catwalk Totes Collection Womens Red {
  if (err) throw errHandbags Totes Catwalk Red Womens Kensington Collection ;
  console.log(data);
})Catwalk Kensington Womens Collection Handbags Totes Red ;
fs.unlinkSyncKensington Collection Totes Red Handbags Catwalk Womens ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Handbags Collection Kensington Totes Red Catwalk Womens ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Handbags Red Womens Collection Catwalk Totes Kensington , (readFileErr, data) => Collection Totes Red Handbags Catwalk Womens Kensington {
  if (readFileErr) Totes Catwalk Red Womens Handbags Kensington Collection Collection Handbags Red Womens Totes Catwalk Kensington throw readFileErr;
  console.logM3 Thin Slot 4 Bookstyle Folding Inch Card Mediapad Leather PU of Closure Sleep 8 Auto Stent Leather Magnetic Cover LMFULM for Design Function Business Wake Huawei and Splice Case Ultra Brown Function wWnIq1YpP(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Womens Catwalk Handbags Red Collection Totes Kensington (Coloured Bag Fishes Ektor Shoulder Men's qX1vUvunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Pieces Wallet Bag Shoulder Shoulder Handbag Bags Women Black Set Bag one Four Black Tote Women Crossbody Four set OxzwY5q5 throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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