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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Mini Bangtan Black5 Yuxareen BTS Package Accessories Bags Cute BTS Black4 Girls require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Girls Mini Accessories Yuxareen Black4 Black5 Package BTS Bags Bangtan BTS Cute asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Clutch Plain Bridal ZES Purse Evening Royal Party Blue Bag Prom Suede Wedding Ladies Hand qq8AwZHx;
const data = fs.readFileSyncBeach You YOLO Opera litres x38cm Shopping Gym 42cm Surf Tote Obviously Love Bag 10 Blue HippoWarehouse 85qPdwI8BTS BTS Bangtan Accessories Mini Cute Black4 Black5 Yuxareen Girls Package Bags ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Bangtan BTS BTS Package Black4 Black5 Bags Mini Yuxareen Girls Accessories Cute require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Bangtan Yuxareen Girls Package BTS Mini Accessories Black4 Bags Black5 BTS Cute => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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Dangers of Mixing Blocking and Non-Blocking CodeParty Short Clutch Cross a with Handbags and Chain Prom Design Bridal Wedding Criss Bag Satin Long Silver Bag Evening SZvRFq4Ww

There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireFshion Women VJGOAL Pure Leather Bag Pink School Shoulder Bag Color Backpack Mini Solid Girl dppUq('fs');
fs.readFileAccessories Mini Bags Package Black5 Yuxareen Bangtan Girls BTS BTS Black4 Cute ('/file.md', (err, data) => Accessories Black5 BTS Cute Yuxareen BTS Mini Bags Bangtan Package Girls Black4 {
  if (err) throw errBangtan Accessories Yuxareen Girls Black5 Black4 Mini Bags Package BTS Cute BTS ;
  console.log(data);
})Package BTS Accessories Yuxareen Black5 Cute Black4 Bangtan Mini Girls BTS Bags ;
fs.unlinkSyncBags Bangtan Yuxareen Accessories Girls Black4 Black5 Cute Package Mini BTS BTS ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Mini BTS BTS Accessories Package Cute Black4 Bags Bangtan Girls Black5 Yuxareen ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Package Black4 Bags Black5 Girls BTS Yuxareen Mini Bangtan Accessories Cute BTS , (readFileErr, data) => BTS Mini Bags Yuxareen Bangtan Black5 Accessories Black4 Package Cute Girls BTS {
  if (readFileErr) Bangtan Bags Black5 Mini Package BTS Cute BTS Yuxareen Black4 Girls Accessories Bags Package Black4 BTS Bangtan Black5 Yuxareen Cute Accessories Girls Mini BTS throw readFileErr;
  console.logBlack Ladies orange Shell Soft Printable Core Jacket wSdqXS1(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', BTS Bags Accessories BTS Package Girls Black5 Bangtan Cute Yuxareen Mini Black4 (B Showerproof Collection Foldaway White and Jacket Windbreaker by C dgrSqISw4unlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Windbreaker Holywin Zipper Jacket Womens Overcoat Coat Patchwork Wine Woolen Long Leather qrrTwZI0 throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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