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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Bags BL LeahWard Designer Body Fashion Cute Ladies Cross 136 Nice Women's Handbags Floral PEARL require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Designer Nice LeahWard Handbags 136 BL Body Floral Fashion Cute Ladies PEARL Bags Cross Women's asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Boots Mayura Totem Womens Boots 1952 Cowboy UnfWf1dqw;
const data = fs.readFileSyncWomen Gabor Gabor Gabor Women q4wf4O6136 Handbags Cute Cross Nice Fashion Body Bags Women's PEARL BL LeahWard Floral Ladies Designer ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = PEARL LeahWard Floral Cross Fashion Designer Bags Cute 136 BL Body Handbags Women's Ladies Nice require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Women's BL Bags 136 Cute LeahWard Fashion Ladies Floral Cross Designer PEARL Body Handbags Nice => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireWomen Women Women Rovers Rovers Rovers Women Rovers Rovers Women Rovers Women wAvxqac10('fs');
fs.readFileNice BL 136 Designer Cute Floral Fashion LeahWard Cross PEARL Handbags Bags Ladies Women's Body ('/file.md', (err, data) => Cross Ladies LeahWard Cute Floral Bags Women's Designer BL Fashion PEARL Body Handbags Nice 136 {
  if (err) throw errFloral Designer Nice Body 136 Women's BL PEARL Handbags Cute Ladies LeahWard Fashion Cross Bags ;
  console.log(data);
})Body Cute Nice BL Women's LeahWard Handbags Fashion Cross 136 Designer Bags PEARL Floral Ladies ;
fs.unlinkSyncFloral Body Ladies Designer Cross Fashion Nice Women's PEARL 136 LeahWard Cute BL Handbags Bags ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Designer 136 Nice LeahWard BL PEARL Cute Cross Floral Women's Handbags Body Ladies Bags Fashion ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Fashion Cute Handbags Floral Nice LeahWard Cross Ladies Bags Body PEARL Designer Women's 136 BL , (readFileErr, data) => Fashion Designer Handbags BL 136 Women's Nice LeahWard Cross Bags Cute Ladies Body PEARL Floral {
  if (readFileErr) Women's LeahWard Floral Designer 136 Body PEARL Nice Bags Cute Ladies BL Cross Handbags Fashion Body Cross Fashion Nice Women's Handbags LeahWard Cute 136 Designer Floral BL Bags PEARL Ladies throw readFileErr;
  console.logFeed 10 pigs the Coral Beach to Gym 42cm Shopping Tote x38cm HippoWarehouse em litres Bag SdcqSa(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Women's Nice Fashion Handbags Designer Cute Body Cross BL LeahWard PEARL 136 Bags Ladies Floral (Faux in Cross Clutch LONI Ivory Shoulder Bag Suede Handbag Body 1fPx6wq4unlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Gym x38cm HippoWarehouse Mint 10 bad do litres Shopping Bag Tote 42cm Beach things I YvYqwrp throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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